The Ruins Structure & Architecture

he  mansion of Don Mariano Ledesma Lacson was built in the early 1900’s but to this day, the 903 square meter structure still stands tall amidst sugar plantation and its grandeur is a testament of the lifestyle of the hacienderos.

The structure of what’s left of the mansion is that we now call The Ruins, withstood the test of time mainly due to the oversized steel bars and the A-grade mixture of concrete used in its construction.  The wall finishing which were made of egg whites mixed with cement gave it its marble-like appearance.

The Columns

The Ruins Structure & Architecture

The structure of The Ruins is of Italianate architecture with neo-Romanesque columns, having a very close semblance to the facade of Carnegie Hall in New York City.

The intricate designs of the columns are still very intact and quite impressive. Whoever made those designs is truly a master in the art.

The Fountain

The Ruins Structure & ArchitectureThe 4-tiered fountain was built after the construction of the mansion was finished. Angelina, one of the daughters maintained a beautiful lily garden in and around the fountain. A Japanese gardener painstakingly took care of the plants until the burning of the mansion.

At present, The Ruins is beautifully landscaped and maintained by 5 gardeners.

The Simborio

The Ruins Structure & ArchitectureSimborio is the local name for smokestack or chimney. it was the vent used for the muscovado mill of the sugar farm of Don Mariano Lacson. In those days, they would make their own sugar by extracting juice of the sugarcane through the mill. transfer them in large vats where they are heated to a certain temperature, and cooled to allow it to crystallize.

Today, muscovado is pretty much prepared the same way as it was in those days. In addition to sugar refineries, muscovado is still a thriving industry in Negros Occidental.

The Veranda Lighting

The pipes used to channel the electric wires, embedded inthe ceiling, are the same ones used today. Note the rings beside the ceiling lights which used to hold the chains of chandeliers.

The Wooden Floors

The flooring used for the mansion were alternating red and yellow span, 2-inch thick, hard wood running from the main entrace facing the fountain all the way to the end of the dining room, with no joints. They were a meter wide and were about 67 feet (20.5 meters) long. The living room near the veranda and all bedrooms, downstairs and upstairs inclusing the belvedre, were all of wooden floor.

The Belvedere

The Ruins Structure & Architecture A belvedere at the second floor, facing west, in a glassed-in sun-room with bay windows affords a beautiful view of the sunset and the coastline of Talisay.

The Small Arched Window

This is the original window between the kitchen and the dining area. This is common in most Spanish homes in order to facilitate the movement of food and minimize foot traffic in and out of the kitchen. The original kitchen is now turned into a receiving room.

The Tiles in the Mansion

The Ruins Structure & ArchitectureThe tiles in the mansion were brought in from Spain. Arrays of varies designs of tiles used throughout the mansion have been grouped together at the foyer of the back entrance of the mansion. It is believed that the excess tiles were used in this area which was masterfully laid out.

The Rain Gutters & The Down Sprouts

The rain gutters all around at the top of the mansion are made of concrete and formed like canals. Rainwater runs to the back portion of the mansion where two large down sprouts lead it to a steel pipe to the ground where all the water is collected,

The Septic Tank

The origincal septic tank of the mansion now lies beneath the newly built toilets. The dimensions of the septic tank is 127in x 289in with a depth of 6 ft. The septic tank is watertight and has two chambers inside with concrete walls. Built in the 1920’s, the same septic tank is now being used at The Ruins.

Digging around the septic tank to locate the outlet revealed blocks of concrete which were the 1920’s molds used to make the balusters in the mansion.

The Initials

The Ruins Structure & ArchitectureAt first, I thought the owner has a penchant for letter E since these are molded onto the posts of the mansion. In fact, these are letter M’s, the initials of Mariano and Maria. The mansion was built after the death of Maria Braga so Don Mariano must have built it in remembrance of his deceased wide.

The Shell-Inspired Decor

The Ruins Structure & ArchitectureThe shell-inspored decor lined the top edged of the mansion. These same decor are used in those times in New England in the homes of ship captains. Maria Braga’s father was a captain of a ship.

The structure and architecture of The Ruins gave us a glimpse of life iof the hacienderos in those days. Only a few of these grand mansions still stand today and those which are no longer lived in are often destroyed in exchange for more modern structures. It is fortunate that the family of Mariano Lacson thought of preserving this historic structure as a family legacy and to share with those who have an appreciation for it. If The Ruins was torned down, much of these history will forever be lost.

More Images


The Ruins of Talisay, Negros Occidental

The Ruins of Talisay is Negros Occidental, despite its damaged state is still a marvelous sight to behold. Beautiful garden and fountain tiered with water lilies greets the visitors. During its heyday, it was a gem right in the heart of a sugarcane plantation. At night, the mansion ruins looks even more spectacular.

The Ruins of Lacson Mansion History

Wealthy sugar baron Don Mariano Ledesma Lacson built the mansion in 1900′s for Maria Braga, his portuguese wife. He made sure that the mansion was furnished with imported luxurious items. The Mansion’s structure resembles that of the italian architecture with neoclassical columns. The facades of the mansion is comparable to the ones in Carnegie Hall. The belvedere facing west enables one to view the beautiful sunset through the bay window.

The garden of the mansion was tended by Don Mariano’s daughter Angelina. Imported lilies filled the garden and around the fountain. A japanese gardener was hired to maintain the gardens until he disappeared just before the war. It was found out later on that the gardener they hired was an informant to the Japanese Military. When the world war 2 broke out, the guerillas burned down the mansion to prevent the Japanese from occupying the area. The mansion burned down leaving behind the concrete structure that still stands to this day.

Okay… thats the History… I can’t write so much.. All I got is a bunch of pictures..

Additional Information .

The ruins turns into gold when the time is exactly 5:30 P.M.( I’m not sure  🙂 )  I’m at the ruins at the morning , so I have to chance to have a glimpse on it golden structure that occurs during sunset. It turns gold because of the SUN (of course)  and the Egg that is used during construction

here is its gold structure… during the sunset… Compliments on the Watermark.

World Cup


In life , as in a soccer game , skill , precision and technique are of utmost importance. I do not argue that.  However , more often than not , when push comes to shove , the one who wants it the most , the one with most passion and courage , tempered by wisdom and experience  , is the one who scores the goal and make history.
Xabi Alonso
In the semifinal match between Germany and Spain early Wednesday morning, the spaniard’s passion and poetry(the fluidity by which they play their game) clearly trumped the German Precision. Perhaps also because spain was the older team(not an ace when you think about physical level) so experience played a critical part in outwitting the stronger yet younger team.

Germany was the favored team because they had quite the awesome record while Spain’s was , well , second rate compared to Germany. Statistically , Germany had scored way more goals than spain , but spain has the greatest number of passes in this tournament. Spanish midfield composed of Xavi , Sergio Busquets , Xabi Alonso , Andres Iniesta and Cesc Fabregas have made more passes than any other player in the tournament , a combined amount of 1,494(this is before the finals, In the finals Xavi alone has 80 passes and covered more than 15 KM of 120 minutes of pure action).

They  call it “tiki taka” in  barcelona, the short , sharp , one or two touch passes which brought Spain and Barcelona such success.

Real Madrid star Xabi Alonso explains ” for us , it is important to wait for the right moment to strike and , until when , to keep passing. You might give two passes that seem to lack value but the third maybe the decisive one. The first pass you make does not need to be a direct one, seeking out your forwards”.
Which makes one think that just like life , what is more important is not the end point or whether you hit your goal or not, but more so the lessons you learn along the way. And how important it is to keep trying , to show courage in the face of seemingly insurmountable odds.

Here’s a Interesting article written by somebody

Goalkeeper . Kicking the ball straight in the goal does not guarantee it will make it to the net. A goal keeper stands there to teach us that no meaningful goal in life can be achieved without final obstacle that may foil ll previous obstacles(defenders) you may have overcome in the past.
Carles Puyol
Value of one goal. Carles Puyol’s winning goal against Germany made all the difference. Every goal in a soccer match is celebrated as though it is the winning goal. This is because players work so hard and for so long to score a single goal. In life, we must celebrate every achievement even if your assignment is not over. And remember, goals can be achieved oftentimes in the least expected ways.

Draw game. No one has to win for players and fans alike to enjoy a good game of soccer. A nil-nil game can be just as exhilarating as a game with three goals. Life does not always have to produce winners and losers.

Patience. Unlike any other sport, soccer teaches one the value of patience. Scoring a goal, like achieving a dream, can take time and teaches the athlete, spectator and dreamer many valuable lessons in perseverance and diligence.

Spain won the world cup against Netherlands(they won by a Andres Iniesta extra time goal coming from the string of passes in the spanish midfield)

Like in life and relationships, it is important to know the rhythm and flow of the people that you work with so that great things can be achieved and relationships can go smoothly. If Spain’s reserve goalkeeper Pepe Reina’s words are any indication, the Netherlands will be up for a major battle. Reina says, “‘It is our secret. We know each other by memory and we don’t panic because in a World Cup the games are really close and you have to be patient and keep trying to find the space. We did it at the end against Germany and we are proud of that.’

The Core team of Spain Includes its magnificent midfielders Sergio Busquets , Xabi Alonso , Xavi Hernandes , Andres Iniesta , Cesc Fabregas , and Striker David Villa(  I excluded Fernando Torres because of a disappointing showing in this world cup tournament)  I will also include defender Sergio Ramos and Goalkeeper Iker Casillas as the players behind the spain success in the world cup 2010 , Till then we meet at the 2014 world cup in brazil..


The Body Language of Poker

1. Watch the Eyes
This is why many pros wear sunglasses or visors/caps when playing, they know that the eyes rarely lie. For example, many players can’t help but stare at big hole cards, so their length of time peeking is longer. Conversely, if a player is looking to steal the pot, he may look to his left to see if the remaining players, who haven’t yet acted, have quickly glanced at their cards and are likely to fold. Another example, a player may try to ask you questions about your hand, knowing that people rarely can “look someone straight in the eyes” while being dishonest.

2. Facial Expression
Again, many pros try to disguise their entire face by wearing a cap and looking downward. This is to avoid the classic stare-down that poker pros are famous for. They may try to study your face for nervousness (detecting a weak hand), or even look for repetitive characteristics like a body “tic”. You may have obvious unhappiness in your face when your hand is weak, and conversely, you may show a contrasting show of confidence when your hand is strong.

3. Weak is Strong/Strong is Weak
In its most simplistic form, this usually applies to novice players but frequently applies to pros as well. Basically, players like to be actors, and when they have a monster hand they tend to look disinterested. For example: “Oh, is it my turn to act” or “Oh I guess I will play these cards”. Alternatively, a player increasing the level of his voice while raising the pot, and trying to look intimidating.. may be running a bluff.

4. Anxiety
Anxiety typically occurs in people when they are confronted, or anticipating confrontation. Psychologists call this the “Fight or Flight” stimulus response, which links back to the days when we were cavemen/cavewomen. Physical changes happen including flexing of muscles, eye pupil dilation, palpitating heart rate, dry throat. In poker, when someone has a big hand they are typically ready for confrontation and can exhibit some of these characteristics. You may see the chest expanding abnormally, or you may notice the players voice become slightly higher as he makes a comment. Some of the top players in the game will stare at the vein on the top-side of your face for blood pressure changes. During a bluff, the player may demonstrate anxiety, but if he knows he will fold the hand if re-raised (non-confrontational end) may look quite comfortable.

5. Trembling Hands
Also, a byproduct of anxiety, beware of a player whose hands are shaking, this nervousness can represent a big hand.

6. Glance at Chips
Again, relating to the eyes. It is common for players to quickly glance at their chips if they connect with the board after a Flop. This may be a subconscious reaction, but the tell is the player is already planning his attack!

7. Peeking Hole Cards on Flop
Some players will take another look at their hole cards when, for example, the board is showing a potential 3 card flush draw. Typically, the player is looking to see if one of his cards is connecting, because he remembers only that the two cards are different suits.

8. Repetitive Betting Patterns
Usually the most revealing poker tells are based on the way a player habitually bets during particular situations. For example, maybe the player always checks when he has made the nuts, or a player may regularly fold after being re-raised.

9. Body Posture/Attitude
Some players show obvious changes in their posture based on their attitude/hand strength. For instance, you may notice their shoulders drop/slump when they are not confident (weak hand). Conversely, you may notice the player is very attentive and sitting in an erect position when he has strength. You may also notice that a player who bluff  a lot, leans forward in a confrontational way… remember Strong is Weak!

10. Chip Stacking
When you first sit down at a table, study the way the players stack their chips. Although it is a generalization, loose aggressive players typically maintain unorganized/sloppy stacks, while tight conservative players keep well organized/neat stacks.


Eclipse Cover
HARDCORE FANS, THOSE who didn’t read the books, and even those who weren’t able to watch the two previous “Twilight” saga movies are sure to enjoy the movie version of “Eclipse”. Starting off with a certain Seattle native named Riley Biers being bitten by the vampire Victoria, the movie promises to give viewers a lot of exciting things to the next two hours. Bent on becoming a bloodsucker after graduation , but still not being fully supported by her vampire boyfriend Edward , Bella’s life gets even more complicated when she becomes the target if an army of freshly bitten vampire led by Riley Biers. Interestingly, the Cullen clan teams up with Jacob Black and the rest of the warewolf pack, forgetting their differences for a while to protect the endangered Bella, who by now has become the hottest girl on the planet. If you saw “New Moon” , you will notice that some things haven’t changed. The vampires still wear kabuki make-up and have actually already perfected the constipated look, especially Jasper, looks funny in the movie. Some of the characters hair will make you laugh too. Take , for example , Alice , who do not only sports an unflattering hairstyle , but even dons a big black bow in one of the scenes , making her look like she’s trying to be cute. And as usual, the Cullens , when all together(especially when waiting for the enemies) look like they’re posing for a forced goth Gap ad , with all the pouts and fierce facial expression , plus color-coordinated get-ups. Despite of these repetitions, which are somehow forgivable and actually entertaining, the movie has so much more to offer. For starters, there is the new character: army leader Riley Biers, the jealous and snooty warewolf Leah Clearwater; and a young freshly-bitten, scene stealing vampire It’s nice to deviate from the three main characters love triangle, too, thanks to the interesting back stories of Jasper and Rosalie, delivered “True Blood” flashback style Another fresh change is how Jacob is now openly fighting for Bella. Gone is the shy, keep-it-to-myself Jacob. Jacob made a very good point when he explained to Bella how he is better for her because she’s doesn’t have to change or say goodbye to those she loves, for him. The saga’s third installment is sexier than the previous two movies. Jacob has more topless scene (the first one made the audience go “wow” in unison) even bringing Edward to say “Doesn’t he own a shirt?” There is a lot of hugging and kissing. Virginity is tackled. And Edward’s stand on pre marital se is revealed (Bella say’s it ancient) It is easy to conclude that “Eclipse” is so far the best among the three “Twilight” movies , even if that’s just because the first one was too basic and forgivable and so the second one was naturally better given the weak beginning. But to be fair “Eclipse” is filled with great lines (“lets face it, I’m hotter than you” said Jacob) another is “what about when Jacob said “the clouds I can handle but I cant fight an eclipse”, That’s basically the whole reason its called eclipse So enjoyable is “Eclipse” that those who watch it will definitely be impatient for the two part “Breaking Dawn” movies.

The Many Uses of Gold

Of all the minerals mined from the Earth, none is more useful than gold. Its usefulness is derived from a diversity of special properties. Gold conducts electricity, does not tarnish, is very easy to work, can be drawn into wire, can be hammered into thin sheets, alloys with many other metals, can be melted and cast into highly detailed shapes, has a wonderful color and a brilliant luster. Gold is a memorable metal that occupies a special place in the human mind.

When Spanish explorers first arrived in the “New World” they met the native South Americans. These two cultures had been separated by a vast ocean, they had never touched one another, they spoke different languages and lived entirely different lives. Yet they had one thing in common – they both held gold in highest esteem and used it to make some of their most important objects.

Throughout the history of our planet almost every established culture has used gold to symbolize power, beauty, purity and accomplishment. Today we continue to use gold for our most significant objects: wedding rings, Olympic medals, Oscars, Grammys, money, crucifixes and ecclesiastical art. No other substance of the same rarity holds a more visible and prominent place in our society.

Jewelry: The Primary Use of Gold

gold ring
Gold ring with colored stone.
© Gorski

gold rings
Gold rings of different color.
© McCarthy

The production of ornamental objects was probably the first use of gold over 6000 years ago. Gold is found in the pure state, is very easy to work and was probably the first metal used by humans. Today, most of the gold that is newly mined or recycled is used in the manufacture of jewelry. About 78% of the gold consumed each year is used in the manufacture of jewelry.

Special properties of gold make it perfect for manufacturing jewelry. These include: very high luster; desirable yellow color; tarnish resistance; ability to be drawn into wires, hammered into sheets or cast into shapes. These are all properties of an attractive metal that is easily worked into beautiful objects. Another extremely important factor that demands the use of gold as a jewelry metal is tradition. Important objects are expected to be made from gold.

Financial Gold – Coinage, Bullion, Currency Backing
ecause gold is highly valued and in very limited supply it has long been used as a medium of exchange or money. The first known use of gold in transactions dates back about 6000 years. Early transactions were done using pieces of gold or pieces of silver. The rarity, usefulness and desirability of gold make it a substance of long term value. Gold works well for this purpose because it has a high value, is durable, portable and easily divisible.

Some early printings of paper money were backed by gold held in safe keeping for every unit of money that was placed in circulation. The United States once used a “gold standard” and maintained a stockpile of gold to back every dollar in circulation. Under this gold standard, any person could present paper currency to the government and demand in exchange an equal value of gold. The gold standard was once used by many nations but it eventually became too cumbersome and is no longer used by any nation.

The gold used as a financial backing for currency was most often held in the form of gold bars, also known as “gold bullion”. The use of gold bars kept manufacturing costs to a minimum and allowed convenient handling and storage. Today many governments, individuals and institutions hold investments of gold in the convenient form of bullion.

The first gold coins were minted under the order of King Croesus of Lydia (a region of present-day Turkey) in about 560 BC. Gold coins were commonly used in transactions up through the early 1900’s when paper currency became a more common form of exchange. Gold coins were issued in two types of units. Some were denominated in units of currency, such as dollars, while others were issued in standard weights, such as ounces or grams.

Today gold coins are no longer in wide use for financial transactions. However, gold coins issued in specific weights are popular ways for people to purchase and own small volumes of gold for investment. Gold coins are also issued as “commemorative” items. Many people enjoy these commemorative coins because they have both a collectable value and a precious metal value.

Uses of Gold in Electronics

The most important industrial use of gold is in the manufacture of electronics. Solid state electronic devices use very low voltages and currents which are easily interrupted by corrosion or tarnish at the contact points. Gold is the highly efficient conductor that can carry these tiny currents and remain free of corrosion. Electronic components made with gold are highly reliable. Gold is used in connectors, switch and relay contacts, soldered joints, connecting wires and connection strips.

A small amount of gold is used in almost every sophisticated electronic device. This includes: cell phones, calculators, personal digital assistants, global positioning system units and other small electronic devices. Most large electronic appliances such as television sets also contain gold.

One challenge with the use of gold in very small quantities in very small devices is loss of the metal from society. Nearly one billion cell phones are produced each year and most of them contain about fifty cents worth of gold. Their average lifetime is under two years and very few are currently recycled. Although the amount of gold is small in each device, their enormous numbers translate into a lot of unrecycled gold.

Use of Gold in Computers

Gold is used in many places in the standard desktop or laptop computer. The rapid and accurate transmission of digital information through the computer and from one component to another requires an efficient and reliable conductor. Gold meets these requirements better than any other metal. The importance of high quality and reliable performance justifies the high cost.

Edge connectors used to mount microprocessor and memory chips onto the motherboard and the plug-and-socket connectors used to attach cables all contain gold. The gold in these components is generally electroplated onto other metals and alloyed with small amounts of nickel or cobalt to increase durability.

Use of Gold in Dentistry
How would iron work as a dental filling? Not very well… your dentist would need blacksmithing tools, your smile would be rusty a few days after a filling and you would need to get used to the taste of iron. Even at much higher expense, gold is used in dentistry because of its superior performance and aesthetic appeal. Gold alloys are used for fillings, crowns, bridges and orthodontic appliances. Gold is used in dentistry because it is chemically inert, nonallergenic and easy for the dentist to work.

Gold is known to have been used in dentistry as early as 700 B.C. Etruscan “dentists” used gold wire to fasten replacement teeth into the mouths of their patients. Gold was probably used to fill cavities in ancient times;, however there is no documentation or archaeological evidence for this use of gold until a little over 1000 years ago.

Gold was much more generously used in dentistry up until the late 1970’s. The sharp run-up of gold prices at that time motivated the development of substitute materials. However, the amount of gold used in dentistry is starting to rise again. Some motivation for this comes from concerns that less inert metals might have an adverse effect on long-term health.

Medical Uses of Gold

Gold is used as a drug to treat a small number of medical conditions. Injections of weak solutions of sodium aurothiomalate or aurothioglucose are sometimes used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Particles of a radioactive gold isotope are implanted in tissues to serve as a radiation source in the treatment of certain cancers.

Small amounts of gold are used to remedy a condition known as Lagophthalmos, which is an inability of a person to close their eyes completely. This condition is treated by implanting small amounts of gold in the upper eyelid. The implanted gold “weights” the eyelid and the force of gravity helps the eyelid close fully.

Radioactive gold is used in diagnosis. It is injected in a colloidal solution that can be tracked as a beta emitter as it passes through the body. Many surgical instruments, electronic equipment and life-support devices are made using small amounts of gold. Gold is nonreactive in the instruments and is highly reliable in the electronic equipment and life-support devices.

Uses of Gold in Aerospace

If you are going to spend billions of dollars on a vehicle that when launched will travel on a voyage where the possibility of lubrication, maintenance and repair is absolutely zero, then building it with extremely dependable materials is essential. This is exactly why gold is used in hundreds of ways in every space vehicle that NASA launches.

Gold is used in circuitry because it is a dependable conductor and connector. In addition, many parts of every space vehicle are fitted with gold-coated polyester film. This film reflects infrared radiation and helps stabilize the temperature of the spacecraft. Without this coating, dark colored parts of the spacecraft would absorb significant amounts of heat

Gold is also used as a lubricant between mechanical parts. In the vacuum of space, organic lubricants would volatilize and they would be broken down by the intense radiation beyond Earth’s atmosphere. Gold has a very low shear strength and thin films of gold between critical moving parts serves as a lubricant – the gold molecules slip past one another under the forces of friction and that provides a lubricant action.

Uses of Gold in Awards and Symbols of Status
What metal is used to make the crown worn by a king? Gold! This metal is selected for use because gold it is THE metal of highest esteem. It would make no sense to make a king’s crown out of steel – even though steel is the strongest metal. Gold is chosen for use in a king’s crown because it is the metal associated with highest esteem and status.

Gold is associated with many positive qualities. Purity is another quality associated with gold. For this reason, gold is the metal of choice for religious objects. Crosses, communion ware and other religious symbols are almost always made with gold for this reason.

Gold is also used as the first place winner’s medal or trophy in almost any type of contest. First place winners at the Olympic Games are given gold medals. The Academy Awards Oscars are gold awards. Music’s Grammy Awards are made of gold. All of these important achievements are honored with awards made of gold.

Uses of Gold in Glassmaking

Gold has many uses in the production of glass. The most basic use in glassmaking is that of a pigment. A small amount of gold suspended in the glass when it is annealed produces a rich ruby color.

Gold is also used when making specialty glass for climate controlled buildings and cases. A small amount of gold dispersed within the glass or coated onto the glass surface will reflect solar radiation outward, helping the buildings stay cool in the summer, and reflect internal heat inward, helping them stay warm in winter.

The visor on the helmet of an astronaut’s space suit is coated with a very thin film of gold. This thin film reflects much of the very intense solar radiation of space, protecting the astronaut’s eyes and skin.

Gold Gilding and Gold Leaf

Gold has the highest malleability of any metal. This enables gold to be beaten into sheets that are only a few millionths of an inch thick. These thin sheets, known as “gold leaf” can be applied over the irregular surfaces of picture frames, molding or furniture.

Gold leaf is also used on the external and internal surfaces of buildings. This provides a durable and corrosion-resistant covering. One of the most eye-catching uses of gold leaf is on the domes of religious buildings and other important structures. The cost of this “roofing material” is very high per square foot; however, the cost of the gold is only a few percent of the total project cost. Most of the cost goes to the labor of highly skilled artisans who apply the gold leaf.

Future Uses of Gold

Gold is too expensive to use by chance. Instead it is used deliberately and only when less expensive substitutes can not be identified. As a result, once a use is found for gold it is rarely abandoned for another metal. This means that the number of uses for gold have been increasing over time.

Most of the ways that gold is used today have been developed only during the last two or three decades. This trend will likely continue. As our society requires more sophisticated and reliable materials our uses for gold will increase. This combination of growing demand, few substitutes and limited supply will cause the value and importance of gold to increase steadily over time. It is truly a metal of the future. w